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مطالعات ارتباطی - تفاوت داده و اطلاعات چیست؟
 
مطالعات ارتباطی
جمعه 21 تیر 1392 :: نویسنده : میثم خاکپور




داده چیست؟  داده یکسری مواد خام است که پیش از اینکه تبدیل به چیزهای مفیدی شود نیازمند طی فرآیندها و مراحلی است. داده ها شکلهای مختلفی دارند مانند: اعداد، حروف، نمادها. داده ها با رویدادها و واقعیات در ارتباط هستند و به خودی خود دارای هیچ کاربرد و ارزشی نیستند.

تصور کنید وقتی شما یک کالایی را خریداری می کنید چه داده هایی ایجاد می شود:

·         زمان و تاریخ معامله (مثلاً ساعت 10:05 روز سه شنبه 20 فروردین 92)

·         ارزش معامله (مثلا 55000 تومان)

·         حقایقی درباره اینکه چه چیزی خریداری شده (مثل جارو برقی، ماشین لباسشوئی و...)

·         پرداخت چگونه صورت گرفته (مثلاً: نقدی، اینترنتی، از طریق دستگاه کارت خوان)

·         چه فروشنده ای اطلاعات را ثبت کرده است

·         آیا کالای فروخته شده شامل تخفیفی بوده یا خیر.

در این مثال ساده داده ها از لحاظ  بحث خرید و فروش نیازمند طی فرآیندهایی هستند تا خریدار رسید مربوط به کالای مورد نظر خود را دریافت کند. حال تصور کنید چنین داده هایی چطور می تواند برای مدیر یک فروشگاه زنجیره ای مفید و سودمند باشد، مثلاً گزارش فروش روزانه یا اینکه کدامیک از کالاها بیشترین فروش را داشته است.

اطلاعات چیست؟ به کمک مثال بالا به این نتیجه می رسیم که اطلاعات عبارتست از داده هایی که پس از طی فرآیندهایی برای فرد دریافت کننده معنی دار می شود و یا به نقل از ویکی پدیا اطلاعات عبارت از داده های پردازش شده است.

کاربردهای اطلاعات

دستیابی به اطلاعات برای هر سازمانی به پنج نیاز آنها پاسخ می دهد:

برنامه ریزی: در مرحله برنامه ریزی اطلاعات بسیار با ارزش هستند؛ زیرا بعنوان یک فاکتور مهم در فرآیند تصمیم گیری محسوب میشوند.

ثبت: (برای برنامه ریزی و تصمیم گیری نیازمند ثبت و ضبط اطلاعات هستیم.)

کنترل: زمانی که یک برنامه برای سیستم تدوین می شود، نیازمند کنترل فرآیندهایی است که بر ضد سیستم بوجود می آید. بنابراین اطلاعات می بایست به ما کمک کند تا هرآنچه که منجر به بهبود و یا پسرفت سیستم می شود را بشناسیم نه اینکه آن را پیش بینی کنیم.

اندازه گیری: عملکرد می بایست از طریق اطلاعات موجود تجزیه و تحلیل و اندازه گیری شود.

تصمیم گیری: اطلاعاتی که در فرآیند تصمیم گیری مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد معمولاً در سه گروه دسته بندی می شوند:

 

·         اطلاعات استراتژیک: اطلاعات استراتژیک، ما را در برنامه ریزی برای اهداف کلی سازمان و اندازه گیری میزانی تحقق این اهداف یاری می کند. با توجه به مثالی که در ارتباط با فروشگاه زنجیره ای زده شد، اطلاعات استراتژیک آن می تواند شامل موارد زیر باشد: میزان سود دهی هر بخش چقدر است و یا اینکه میزان بازگشت سرمایه گذاریهای انجام شده به چه مقدار خواهد بود.

·         اطلاعات تاکتیکی: به آن دسته از اطلاعات گفته می شود که با نحوه تخصیص منابع سروکار دارد.

·         اطلاعات عملیاتی: به آن دسته از اطلاعاتی اطلاق می شود که به بررسی تطابق وظایف و روند فعالیتها برمبنای اهداف برنامه ریزی شده می پردازد.

متن مذکور ترجمه (با اندکی تخلیص و تغییر) از منبع زیر می باشد.  

 

http://www.tutor2u.net/business/ict/intro_business_information.htm







نوع مطلب : اطلاعات و ارتباطات، 
برچسب ها : اطلاعات، ارتباطات، کاربرد اطلاعات، داده،
لینک های مرتبط : Data& Information،
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